Tools of the Trade – The Housewife’s Cook Book

Once upon a time the head of the family, the husband, went out to work each day to provide for his family while the wife stayed at home and followed her trades  as a  cook, cleaner, laundress, nurse, etc.  And one of the tools she needed for her trade as a cook was a cookery book with detailed instructions on how to put those important meals on the table.

D2 Chas & Vera 1929Vera Tansey married in 1929 and is pictured here a few weeks after her wedding. She had provided herself with an Every Ladies’ Cook-Book by Miss Drake.

Mrs Drake Cookery Book Cover bAs you can see it has been well and truly used by my mother

Lucy Drake who had trained in London had been in charge of cookery classes at Swinburne Technical College in Melbourne.  Her salary when she started in 1914 was 12/6 a week.  The publishers of Everylady’s Journal decided Australia needed a cook book which was suited to our climate and our tastes and offered Lucy Drake a large fee to compile such a book. Swinburne College granted her six months leave on half pay  and she set off for Tasmania on holidays and went to work. Unfortunately a couple of weeks after the manuscript was delivered to the publishers she became ill and died.

It is a good cook book. The recipes are clearly explained and mostly still very usable.  It was a time when apart from a few saucepans you would probably have had a basin, a wooden spoon, a sieve or sifter , a mincer/grinder  to screw onto the table and not much else. You did everything by hand.   And you probably didn’t have refrigeration – at best an ice-box or a Coolgardie safe.  So I could understand why you were told  how your soup stock should be boiled up every day to keep it fresh.

I was happily browsing the recipes when I came to a full stop;.  How would you like to make some Ammonia Biscuits using a lump of Ammonia the size of a nutmeg ?

Ammonia Biscuits

I was shocked !  Ammonia !  But it wasn’t quite what I thought.  Ammonium bicarbonate was the forerunner of the Carb Soda and Baking Powder that we use today and it is still widely used today in commercial cooking as a raising agent and a stabiliser.

I try my best not to buy foods with a list of numbers in the ingredients but at last I know what one of those numbers stands for – 503.  Miss Drake’s cook book was first published in 1923 but now a digitized version is available  at http://images.swinburne.edu.au/handle/1111.1/5887

This version  is from a later reprint, 1940,  and includes pages of advertisements. And  should you wish to you can download the whole book or read it online.  I have nothing but praise for Swinburne or any other educational institution which makes information available free of charge.  Because of them I know a little more today than I did yesterday.

You might like to try Lucy Drake’s  Mushroom Sandwiches or Crullers (American) or Jelly Doughnuts or Bath Buns or ………

And so to everyone else’s interpretation of this week’s Sepia Saturday  picture with its street trader, tools of trade, menders, cobblers, etc.

2014.09W.13

 

 

Horses and Wagons

Sepia Saturday this week includes the word TRANSPORT  for which  The Oxford Dictionary says

Take or carry (people or goods) from one place to another by means of a vehicle, aircraft, or ship:

That’s interesting.   Does that mean if you were to deliver a parcel by horseback you are not transporting that parcel.  It needs to be delivered in conjunction with a vehicle, aircraft or ship.

So I  have looked at how my family have used horses for transport with the help of a WAGON.

The first photo is of my grandmother’s uncle, Bullocky Bob, ie Robert Telford  (1871-1940) and his bullock wagon.  He only had one eye as the result of an accident.  You’ll notice his dog trotting along at the back of the wagon.  There is no train line to Apollo Bay so everything came in by boat or bullock wagon.

Robert telford and his bullock team bIt’s a very large wagon and we can’t see what he is carting as it has a cover over it.  He lived at Apollo Bay and until 1930 the Electoral Rolls described him as a grazier.  After that he and his wife were storekeepers at Duverney.

The next photo is probably early to mid 1920s on the Fricke dairy farm, Glen Avon, at Apollo Bay in south-western Victoria.  The wagon is being used for a family outing, perhaps they are heading into town on market day.

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERAIt is not a very clear photo but you can see the back of the house and the pole for holding up the clothes line.  From here the track to the road winds around the back of the house and down the small hill.  This wagon has the front wheels smaller than the back wheels  and I believe this is because the  steering is controlled by the front wheels and these smaller wheels give a smaller turning circle. I think the wagon is being driven by the eldest daughter of the house, my Aunt Enid.

The wagon is also used for bringing in the hay.  Here it is in the paddock at the front of the house and once again you can get a glimpse of  the clothes line with its load of flapping washing.

KONICA MINOLTA DIGITAL CAMERAI think it is my father, Charles Fricke Jr. who is helping with the hay when home for the holidays.  This is possibly mid to late 1920s and the smaller head of the other person sitting on the wagon is possibly his younger brother Alan, born 1920.

Later  there was to be a quite nice garden at the front of the house with bushes sculpted into shapes.

Another photo was taken in the front paddock that day but this time it is facing away from the house and across the valley, with Charles standing up and someone possibly tossing the hay up from the ground.

Apollo Bay Charles Jr bringing in the hay c1925  cI have scans of these events thanks  to kind relatives.

Other suggestions from this week’s  Sepia Saturday image  include  coach rides, old transport, roof-racks, luggage, waiting, animated discussion, clowning, and cab drivers, so there will be plenty of variety waiting in the links on —–

2014.09W.11

 

 

 

The Royal Jubilee 1935 as seen by Weldon’s Ladies Journal

This week Sepia Saturday showed us his magazine cover, so now I’ll show him mine.  Actually it belonged to my mother and it was a Souvenir of the Royal Jubilee, 1910-1935 which was included with the English magazine  Weldon’s Ladies’  Journal in April 1935, one of Weldon’s  range of publishing interests.

Their tribute was to King George V ( the grandson of Queen Victoria) and Queen Mary, celebrating fifteen years on the throne of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, as well as other bits and pieces around the world.   At times the emphasis is on the part women have played during those years.  You will probably need to click on the images and enlarge them to read the explanations.

Royal Jubilee 1935 Weldons magazine b

Weldon's 1935 Page 1Weldon’s Ladies Journal was started in 1875 (or 1879, depending on the source)  and was the first magazine specifically designed for the mass public.

Weldon's 1935 Page 9 The magazines were very conservative and centred around the home and reflected upper class tastes and fashions.

But times were changing and during World War I women worked at many different jobs for the first time.

Wooman Chimney sweepJust fancy, a woman winning the rifle shooting competition at Bisley in 1930, and women members of Parliament.

Weldon's 1935 Page 14King George and Queen Mary had seen great improvements in the motor car

Weldon's 1935 page 19and were living through the birth of Television.

Weldon's 1935 page 21

Weldon's 1935 Page 31

Finally the small town of Appledore  in Devon celebrating the Jubilee.  This video, found on YouTube,  put together by  a young girl who was there with photos taken by her father.  Watch for the two little girls in the striped crepe paper dresses.

Before becoming King, as tbe Duke of York, George visited Australia in 1901 and opened the first Session of Parliament when the Commonwealth of Australia was formed from the several States.

King George V died in January 1936 but Queen Mary lived long enough to see her granddaughter become Queen Elizabeth II.

More links to magazine covers and other goodies can be seen at Sepia Saturday.

2014.09W.06

 

 

Wheels, mostly of the Pedal Power kind – Transport, Freedom, Sport

This week’s image from Sepia Saturday  suggests motor bike, pillion passenger, courier, turban.  towel, camp, lots of things as an inspiration in searching through our photos. But none of them sent me scuttling to the family albums for a match.  Instead it was the wheels in the photo which interested me so I’ll go with some family wheels, but ones without the motor, just pedal power wheels.

George Francis ForseyMeet George Francis Forsey (1870 – 1954).   His wife Wilhemina was my grandfather’s cousin.  He was a miner at Clunes in Central Victoria.  Later, as a widower, he shifted to Birchip and is buried there. His bike was his trusted  form of transport in a typical Victorian country town,

Down the years wheels  have been important as a means of transport from place to place, firstly in 1945 then in 1950.

Wheels again  in 1969 in a home made billy cart for a bit of gravity fueled speed

Lachlan winter 1969 billy cart

Freedom to roam in 1972 and 1978

At last in 1979   ……….. an exciting ride on a visitor’s  motor bike

A visiting -motorbike 1979But in recent years,  for the next generation, wheels have become less of a means of transport and more of a sport – BMX racing – as in this Slideshow of No 39 and No 43,

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

And just occasionally a little running repair is needed.

Running Repair

Have a look at the links on the Sepia Saturday page for more interpretations of this motor bike photo.  I only looked at the wheels.2014.09W.03

A rather large tent

For this week’s Saturday Sepia theme of tents I will go back to some men at a sheep sale in 1920 at the large Kooba station in New South Wales which I used in a previous post .

Kooba was a 120,000 acre station in south-central New South Wales . The station had been sold and it was time to sell its 40,000 sheep as well as some cattle and horses. But this time the picture  is of a tent.

Sheep Sale Cars and Tent cIt is believed that this photo was taken on that day.  It’s hard to know what the tent was used for – was it a refreshment tent – you can see a wagon pulled up at the back of the tent which could have brought supplies.  Or was it used as a place for business.  A bonus is seeing all the lovely old cars and the beautiful setting for the tent.

Sheep Sale TentLooking closer you can see men who appear to be sitting at a table.

Kooba Sale Newspaper report

Other tents at other places can be seen via Sepia Saturday

2014.08W.86

 

Telford Brothers Posing for a Picture

Posing is a great word for the theme for this week’s Sepia Saturday   

Here the art of posing is displayed by three of my grandmother’s uncles, rather superior young men looking down their noses,  Telford brothers from Apollo Bay which in earlier days was known as Krambruk.    They were the youngest boys in a family of thirteen.

They show themselves as young bachelors, very much young men about town, though in a tiny little town like Apollo Bay it wouldn’t have been hard to be young men about town !

Three Telford BrothersFrom the left is Arthur Alfred Telford  (1883) , Norman Noble Telford  (1886)  and William Wallace Telford  (1879).   Norman was born the same year as his niece,  my grandmother   Their parents were Scottish, from Linton in Roxburghshire and Fauldhouse in Linlithgowshire.

I think this photo could be c1900+.  Here are some other photos of the three of them in the same order.  This second photo of Arthur Alfred appears to have been taken on the same day as the group photo.

Notice the alliteration in the christian names.  This had only started with the tenth child – Abner Albert.

More posing, lurking and sharing can be found through this week’s Sepia Saturday

2014.08W.84

Andrew Pender and the Tinker’s Tent

 

This is a group of tinkers photographed in Fife early in the 20th Century.

The dictionary tells us that a tinker is

1.  A travelling mender of metal household utensils

2. Chiefly British    A member of any of various traditionally itinerant groups of people living especially in Scotland and Ireland; a traveller

And as itinerant is the key word for this week’s Sepia Sautrday the definition of tinker allows me to segue into a letter written by William Pender to his son Glaud in Australia in 1855.

We met Glaud Pender when he was proposing a toast to the Duke of Edinburgh  But Glaud had been in Australia since 1852.  Many years ago a distant cousin allowed me to transcribe this letter  from Glaud’s father which  at times is  difficult to follow as you will see.

William Pender lived at Knowes Farm near Fauldhouse in Linlithgow  (West Lothian) which is south of the road from Edinburgh to Glascow.  The letter  begins with a description of an accident involving a tinker suffered by Glaud’s younger brother, Andrew.

__________________________________________________________________Knowes  Janry 12th 1855

Dear Glaud,
I Embrace the opertunity of sending A letter with Euphimia Brown in hope of you Receiving it This is the 6 I have  sent    I am Sorry to inform you Andrew has met with an accident
but I am Glad to Say that he is geting better He went away to go to Airdrie on the 6th of Janry and the mare shyed at A tynkers tent west from leadloch Cntry  wheeled round and upset the Cart right on his throat The tinkers had Come and taking him from under it laid him down for dead ran off and left all    They met 2 Engineers and told them there was A man lying on the roadside nearby kiled to run and give the Alarm   They ran East to the den and A great many Came west but he was so disfigured they Could not know him til Wm Greenhorn came up with his Carts put him in one of his Carts and brought him home He lay About an hour in it Cold wet morning before any person Came to his Asistance the mare lying all the while under the Cart He has A Cut in one of his Cheeks 1 of his teeth brock and 2 loosed but had the tinkers not Come direct to his Asistance he could not  have lived 10 minutes.

***  Note :    Leadloch and Airdrie are to the west of Fauldhouse.  Andrew was sixteen years old and apparently still living at home.  Not all tinkers had the covered wagons to live in.  For some their tent was separate to their cart and this may have been the case in Andrew’s accident.   The cart referred to in the letter was Andrew’s cart which fell on him as his horse shied.

The letter then goes on to talk of Glaud’s other brothers and some local people.

David was here and went Away the day before Andw got hirt     he has been working at Muselburgh  this 4 months.      Robt has got married on Jane Forrest    he has got A daughter.  Yur cousin Wm Storry (of) Northfield died of fever in Septr last.   Sir W Bailee is dead .    John Bishops Son (at) halfway house  dropt down dead at his breakfast on Wednesday the 10th Janry       Mr Griffin is very poorly      he is not keeping the School      John Thomson has left him     he is keeping A School at Lesmahagow  he is geting A good School and Mr Griffin has A young man from Harthill  keeping the school for him

***  Note:  David and Robert as well as Andrew are also younger brothers of Glaud. David also migrated to Australia later on.    The letter mentions Sir W. Baillie and John Bishop.  John Bishop was farm overseer to the Baillie family on their nearby  Polkemmet estate     It is of  interest to the Pender family as John Bishop’s daughter Helen was married to Glaud’s cousin James Pender, and Helen’s mother was Elizabeth Burns, the eldest and illegitmate child of the poet Robert Burns.  Burns called Elizabeth his “dear bocht Bess “

 “Lord grant that thou may ay inherit
Thy mither’s looks an’ gracefu’ merit;
An’ thy poor, worthless daddy’s spirit,
Without his failins, “

William continues -

Trade has been very good this some time here and wages pretty high T   he farm has paid well this 2 years but I had the misfortune to lose A good horse last year of lockjaw I have not seen any of your friends in Whitburn this 2 weeks but they are all in good health Robert Bayton has been out of work this some time but he is back to Mrs Smith Again     Whitburn is A sturing place now there is a great deal of work going on About Capers       they have got A  Railway in to it from Bathgate    They have got an Exelint cheam of Ironston  East from Whitburn on Sir Wm’s land at Burnbrae and also plenty of good Coal.   James McCulloch is very poorly he has not wrought any this 10 months     Your mothers neck is A great deal more Swoln Since you left Scotland      We ar all very Anxious to hear from you      I think there has been 6 or 7 letters Sent away Since July last       Dr Mitchell is often Enquiring about you

I Supose you will hear as much about the  war in the East as we do here    T hey ar in A bad State It is reported here that word has Come to Edinburgh on the 11 that Nicoles had given in .   If you have the good fortune to Receive this be Sure and write Soon after I am still in the hope of Seeing you in Scotland yet         I had a letter from Jas lately.   They ar all well     our friends are all in health as far as I know.  Hoping this will find you all Enjoying the Same blessing.  Give our kind love to Grace and Mary Ann

I Remain Dear Glaud
Your Affectionate father
Wm Pender

*** Note :  Crimean War. This is about 6 weeks after the famous Charge of the Light Brigade at Balaclava. He is possibly refering to Nicholas I, emperor of Russia .  Grace is Glaud’s wife and Mary Ann his daughter.    Glaud’s father was to live for another 22 years but he never saw his son again.

William’s writing may lack punctuation and he has a creative way of placing capital letters,  In this transcript I have added a few more capitals for some of the place names.   He certainly manages to  touch on a wide range of topics – – Andrew’s accident, family and local news, economic and international news.  I doubt that I could do as well today even using a laptop in place of  a steel nib pen and a container of ink.  Thank you gggg grandpa William.

Further connections with the word itinerant can be found on Sepia Saturday

 
2014.08W.65